Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) was an author, journalist, and political activist. He is best known for his satirical novel Gulliver's journey and satirical essay on the Irish famine, "A Modest Proposal." & # 39; Gulliver & # 39; s Travels & # 39; is a book of fantasy, satire and political allegory, and it has fallen to many ages. He wrote Gulliver Travels in 1725, and it was published in 1726. This book was a great success throughout the British Empire and earned the titles of writer and commentator with great quality and reputation for the author. In this book, the journey of Gulliver, a surgeon on a merchant ship, is made in four imaginary countries. So the book is divided into four parts. His first trip is to Lilliput, whose inhabitants are about six inches tall. His second visit is to Brobdingnag, the land of the giants. His third visit is to the islands of Laputa and Legedo, inhabited by philosophers and scientists who love music and mathematics. His last visit is in the land of the Honyhnhnms and Yahoos. They are rational and civilized horses, and the Yahoos are incomprehensible and bestial humans, completely dirty.
Before we discuss the & # 39; symbols of his work, & # 39; The Gulliver & # 39; s Travel & # 39 ;, we should discuss something about the literary term & # 39; symbol & # 39; know. The & # 39; Word & # 39; Symbol & # 39; is derived from the late Latin word & # 39; symbol & # 39; means token, sign or emblem. It really is the ornament of literature. The author uses it to discover all the hidden things or philosophy of the work honestly for the reader because they have no difficulty understanding it. If such a thing happened then the job would not be interesting and helpful to represent the age. It is evident that Jonathan Swift used symbols to convey his ideas to the reader by making it easier to read. Keeping all things in mind, we can say that a symbol is something that stands for something else. In the Gulliver Travels, everything stands for something else because it is written for the purpose of critique of contemporary philosophies and sites. Almost every person in this book stands for either a historical figure or an idea.
Let's review the symbols used in his work, The Gulliver's Journey.
In the first book, Swift recounts Gulliver's visit to Lilliputians, the six-inch resident. They represent the symbol of extreme pride of humanity. The author represents the race ironically. He finds that they are small creatures with little minds, but they are the stock of the retreat and the conspiracy; nevertheless, they consider themselves to be great. Gulliver comes under the spell of her vain glory and is rendered credible by her dangers of punishment, even though the course has no real physical power over him. Gulliver learns more about the Lilliputians' culture and the big difference in size between him and the breed. It is explicit satire of the British government. Gulliver finds the Lilliputian government officials elected by their ability in rope dancing, which is arbitrarily and ridiculously recognized. It symbolizes England's system of political rendering that is arbitrary. The difference in their sizes symbolizes the importance of physical strength. The Gulliver can penetrate the Lilliputian by taking careful strolls, but they do not realize their own importance, symbolizing their small senses. They hold Gulliver tight, believing that they can control him. The Swift symbolizes humanity's humanity's power and significance.
Swift is very careful in the case of his satire and with the help of symbols. The articles signed by Gulliver to gain his freedom are symbolically meaningless and self-contradictory pieces of paper, since Gulliver is the symbol of great power and power. He can violate any obligations to his own safety. The story of the conflict between Lilliput and Blefuscu is ridiculous. The & # 39; high-heels and the & # 39; low-heels symbolize the & # 39; whigs and the & # 39; tories of English politics. Lilliput and Blefuscu symbolize England and France. The violent conflict between Big Endians and Little Endians symbolizes the Protestant Reformation and centuries of war between Catholics and Protestants. Thus, European history is as a series of brutal wars over senseless and arbitrary disagreements. The conflict & # 39; how a person chooses to crack an egg & # 39; is a symbol of toughness and triviality. It is ridiculous and inappropriate to conclude that there is no right or wrong way to offer. Swift says that the Christian Bible can be interpreted in more ways than one. It is ridiculous for people to struggle over how they can interpret when one is not sure that interpretation is correct and others are wrong.
The Lilliputian emperor is the symbol of tyranny, cruelty and corruption, and he is obsessed with ceremony which shows a changing symbol of bad government. There is also a biting satire on George I, King of England (from 1714 to 1727), during much of Swift's career. He has no admiration for the king. The Lilliputian Empress stands for Queen Anne, who blocked Swift's progress in the Church of England after being insulted by some of his earlier satires. The Gulliver's dedication to her quarter represented Swift's work & # 39; A Tale of a Tub & # 39 ;. The arrival of the Empress of Gulliver urination is similar to that of Queen Anne's criticism of Swift's work and her efforts to limit her perspectives on the Church of England. Actually, his urination symbolizes his ability to control the lilliputi. It illustrates the importance of physical strength. Gulliver disobeys the Emperor's order to destroy the fleet of Blefuscu underlines the feelings of his responsibility towards all beings. Gulliver finds himself in a position to change the Lilliputians' society forever. There is a reference of the army between Lilliput and Blefuscu symbolizing their patriotic glory with such proud march of armies. According to the Lilliputian Emperor's request for the Gulliver to serve as a sort of provisional arch of triumph to allow the troops to pass, is a pathetic reminder that their grand parade is super stupid. The war with Blefuscu is the symbol of the absurdity that results from injured disobedience. Therefore, the Lilliputians proudly symbolize the lost man and it shows Gulliver's inability to diagnose it correctly.
In Book II (Part II), Jonathan Swift recounts Gulliver's visit to the giant island. Here, his walk is not a symbol of danger to the Borbdingnagians as it was in his visit to Lilliput, as the situation has been reversed. Borbdingnagians represent English ways. After a short time as a working freak, the king's Gulliver is rescued by the Queen, and he lives a life of significant comfort in the courtyard. He spends much of his time learning the language and talking to the king about life in England. The King comes out as a righteous, merciful ruler, very sympathetic and humane. The Borbdingnagians symbolize the private, personal and physical side of humans when they are investigated inward. In the Lilliputians, Gulliver symbolizes God-like power, but here he is the symbol of slave and puppet to do various tricks for paying viewers. The Borbdingnagians do not symbolize negative human characteristics. The behavior of Borbdingnagians is different and seems more civilized than Gulliver's. The Queen's good will towards Gulliver and common sense is found. His enslavement is virtually symbolizing the basic humanity of Borbdingnagians. So it is similar to the Europeans who are happy to make a quick jump when the opportunity arises. He is a golden puppet in their hands, and he gets a comfortable tool with the protection of the rats.
In this book we find a dwarf who is unable to gain the power, which is generally accompanied by great physical size, but he gets his equality, which symbolizes the politics of those who try to gain the power. to attain not by physical force, but by their equality which is exactly immoral and ordinary. D & # 39; ladies and their flaws symbolize imperfection as they are investigated by close scrutiny. Gulliver's microscopic view of flies and flesh symbolizes the discovery of the microscope. In the late seventeenth century came the first publication of books with pictures. Such microscopic views knew the levels of intricacy and error. In his eyes, the small size of Europeans fits through their moral weakness. The Gulliver offering of gunpowder represents imperfection by the British. The king's refusal symbolizes this race more human than the other races. It means that in this society the visike is minimized as much as possible. Although this course has reached a huge moral narrative, it is not yet perfect.
Gulliver's third visit to Lupta demonstrates Swift's attack on science and abstract knowledge. The Laputans are the symbol of the stupidity of theoretical knowledge irrelevant to human life. During his journey his ship was attacked by the pirates. He spoke to them in the Dutch language, but later on his burden of heathen was more merciful than Christian de Swift's religious faith symbolized. In this visit, power is realized not by physical size but by technology. The floating island is both a formidable weapon and an allegorical image representing the symbol of government and the people. In this visit, he tells the Laputans his circular commitment to abstract theory, language, architecture and geography symbolizes the non-humanity. Scientists engage in extracting sunbeams from cucumbers and making them excruciating in food and turning them into gun powder. The architect is committed to designing ways to build houses from the roof that symbolize impossibility and futility, representing scientific society founded in 1660. Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton were all members of the Royal Society. Their main task was to use the new techniques of science to improve the craft etc. The theoretician has ruined a country by forcing its people to pursue fresh and completely useless methods.
Gulliver's flight to Glubbdubdrib symbolizes Swift's attempt to challenge the standards of abstract learning. In total, the ancient Greeks and the Romans were understood to be really expensive, where as a European until somehow degenerated. Besides it, the Struldburgs of Luggnagg symbolize human desires. They seek eternal life and primary benefits of old age. Indeed, wisdom of the ancient times can be used to help humanity, but the immortal Struldburgs are only growing more prejudiced and selfish. The strident bridge's immense sadness and the emptiness of Gulliver's desire to obtain wealth symbolize Swift's condemnation of such self-absorbed goals as the state of sound mind irrelevant to good society.
Jonathan Swift narrates Gulliver's fourth voyage to Honyhnhnms, representing an ideal of rational existence. Here the man is supposed to be yahoo, and he is subservient to the animals. It represents that animals are more civilized or a model citizen. Their society is safe from crime, poverty, disagreement and unhappiness. They are unaware of passion, joy and ecstatic love. Honyhnhnms appeals to reason rather than all holy scripture as a criterion for right action. They use no force but only strong recovery. D & # 39; Gulliver's whole grief says that they made an impact on him greater than that of any other company he visited.
In fact, it is a bitter criticism of humanity. Jonathan Swift chose humanity in all three visits, but here he chose animals. In fact, Honyhnhnms represent man's false and ostentatious arrogance in the power of reason. The Gulliver makes canoe through toothpick to collect the skin of the Yahoos to escape from the island representing his rapid cynicism for the human species. If we, further discuss, it is the cynic's main weapon or satirist to improve humanity, since every satirist is a reformer of hearts.
In fact, it's the look of his book in Notz Shell. His work needs more attention and more time. It hides a great deal of treasure at the relevant age. It is acknowledged that his criticism is swift and harsh, but he did not use it to exploit the human, but to correct them by selecting their follies.